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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Dufresne"  ' -c year=2005 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Dufresne2005.txt -ob lmd_Dufresne2005.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Haeffelin}, M. and {Barthès}, L. and {Bock}, O. and {Boitel}, C. and 
	{Bony}, S. and {Bouniol}, D. and {Chepfer}, H. and {Chiriaco}, M. and 
	{Cuesta}, J. and {Delanoë}, J. and {Drobinski}, P. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and 
	{Flamant}, C. and {Grall}, M. and {Hodzic}, A. and {Hourdin}, F. and 
	{Lapouge}, F. and {Lema{\^i}tre}, Y. and {Mathieu}, A. and {Morille}, Y. and 
	{Naud}, C. and {Noël}, V. and {O'Hirok}, W. and {Pelon}, J. and 
	{Pietras}, C. and {Protat}, A. and {Romand}, B. and {Scialom}, G. and 
	{Vautard}, R.},
  title = {{SIRTA, a ground-based atmospheric observatory for cloud and aerosol research}},
  journal = {Annales Geophysicae},
  year = 2005,
  month = feb,
  volume = 23,
  pages = {253-275},
  abstract = {{Ground-based remote sensing observatories have a crucial role to play in
providing data to improve our understanding of atmospheric processes, to
test the performance of atmospheric models, and to develop new methods
for future space-borne observations. Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, a
French research institute in environmental sciences, created the Site
Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection
Atmosphérique (SIRTA), an atmospheric observatory with these
goals in mind. Today SIRTA, located 20km south of Paris, operates a
suite a state-of-the-art active and passive remote sensing instruments
dedicated to routine monitoring of cloud and aerosol properties, and key
atmospheric parameters. Detailed description of the state of the
atmospheric column is progressively archived and made accessible to the
scientific community. This paper describes the SIRTA infrastructure and
database, and provides an overview of the scientific research associated
with the observatory. Researchers using SIRTA data conduct research on
atmospheric processes involving complex interactions between clouds,
aerosols and radiative and dynamic processes in the atmospheric column.
Atmospheric modellers working with SIRTA observations develop new
methods to test their models and innovative analyses to improve
parametric representations of sub-grid processes that must be accounted
for in the model. SIRTA provides the means to develop data
interpretation tools for future active remote sensing missions in space
(e.g. CloudSat and CALIPSO). SIRTA observation and research activities
take place in networks of atmospheric observatories that allow
scientists to access consistent data sets from diverse regions on the
  doi = {10.5194/angeo-23-253-2005},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Quaas}, J. and {Boucher}, O. and {Denvil}, S. and 
	{Fairhead}, L.},
  title = {{Contrasts in the effects on climate of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols between the 20th and the 21st century}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Global Change: Climate variability (1635, 3305, 3309, 4215, 4513), Global Change: Global climate models (3337, 4928), Atmospheric Processes: Clouds and aerosols, Atmospheric Processes: Radiative processes},
  year = 2005,
  month = nov,
  volume = 32,
  eid = {L21703},
  pages = {21703},
  abstract = {{In this study, we examine the time evolution of the relative
contribution of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases to anthropogenic
climate change. We use the new IPSL-CM4 coupled climate model for which
the first indirect effect of sulfate aerosols has been calibrated using
POLDER satellite data. For the recent historical period the sulfate
aerosols play a key role on the temperature increase with a cooling
effect of 0.5 K, to be compared to the 1.4 K warming due to greenhouse
gas increase. In contrast, the projected temperature change for the 21st
century is remarkably independent of the effects of anthropogenic
sulfate aerosols for the SRES-A2 scenario. Those results are interpreted
comparing the different radiative forcings, and can be extended to other
scenarios. We also highlight that the first indirect effect of aerosol
strongly depends on the land surface model by changing the cloud cover.
  doi = {10.1029/2005GL023619},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Dufresne}, J.-L.},
  title = {{Marine boundary layer clouds at the heart of tropical cloud feedback uncertainties in climate models}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Processes: Climate change and variability (1616, 1635, 3309, 4215, 4513), Atmospheric Processes: Boundary layer processes, Atmospheric Processes: Clouds and cloud feedbacks, Atmospheric Processes: Global climate models (1626, 4928), Atmospheric Processes: Tropical meteorology},
  year = 2005,
  month = oct,
  volume = 32,
  eid = {L20806},
  pages = {20806},
  abstract = {{The radiative response of tropical clouds to global warming exhibits a
large spread among climate models, and this constitutes a major source
of uncertainty for climate sensitivity estimates. To better interpret
the origin of that uncertainty, we analyze the sensitivity of the
tropical cloud radiative forcing to a change in sea surface temperature
that is simulated by 15 coupled models simulating climate change and
current interannual variability. We show that it is in regimes of
large-scale subsidence that the model results (1) differ the most in
climate change and (2) disagree the most with observations in the
current climate (most models underestimate the interannual sensitivity
of clouds albedo to a change in temperature). This suggests that the
simulation of the sensitivity of marine boundary layer clouds to
changing environmental conditions constitutes, currently, the main
source of uncertainty in tropical cloud feedbacks simulated by general
circulation models.
  doi = {10.1029/2005GL023851},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Fournier}, R. and {Hourdin}, C. and {Hourdin}, F.
  title = {{Net Exchange Reformulation of Radiative Transfer in the CO$_{2}$ 15-{$\mu$}m Band on Mars.}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2005,
  month = sep,
  volume = 62,
  pages = {3303-3319},
  abstract = {{The net exchange formulation (NEF) is an alternative to the usual
radiative transfer formulation. It was proposed by two authors in 1967,
but until now, this formulation has been used only in a very few cases
for atmospheric studies. The aim of this paper is to present the NEF and
its main advantages and to illustrate them in the case of planet Mars.In
the NEF, the radiative fluxes are no longer considered. The basic
variables are the net exchange rates between each pair of atmospheric
layers i, j. NEF offers a meaningful matrix representation of radiative
exchanges, allows qualification of the dominant contributions to the
local heating rates, and provides a general framework to develop
approximations satisfying reciprocity of radiative transfer as well as
the first and second principles of thermodynamics. This may be very
useful to develop fast radiative codes for GCMs.A radiative code
developed along those lines is presented for a GCM of Mars. It is shown
that computing the most important optical exchange factors at each time
step and the other exchange factors only a few times a day strongly
reduces the computation time without any significant precision lost.
With this solution, the computation time increases proportionally to the
number N of the vertical layers and no longer proportionally to its
square N$^{2}$. Some specific points, such as numerical
instabilities that may appear in the high atmosphere and errors that may
be introduced if inappropriate treatments are performed when reflection
at the surface occurs, are also investigated.
  doi = {10.1175/JAS3537.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Reddy}, M.~S. and {Boucher}, O. and {Bellouin}, N. and {Schulz}, M. and 
	{Balkanski}, Y. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Pham}, M.},
  title = {{Estimates of global multicomponent aerosol optical depth and direct radiative perturbation in the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere: composition and chemistry, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pollution: urban and regional (0305, 0478, 4251), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Radiation: transmission and scattering, aerosol absorption, model validation, sulfate, black carbon, organic matter},
  year = 2005,
  month = may,
  volume = 110,
  number = d9,
  eid = {D10S16},
  pages = {10},
  abstract = {{The global cycle of multicomponent aerosols including sulfate, black
carbon (BC), organic matter (OM), mineral dust, and sea salt is
simulated in the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique
general circulation model (LMDZT GCM). The seasonal open biomass burning
emissions for simulation years 2000-2001 are scaled from climatological
emissions in proportion to satellite detected fire counts. The emissions
of dust and sea salt are parameterized online in the model. The
comparison of model-predicted monthly mean aerosol optical depth (AOD)
at 500 nm with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) shows good agreement
with a correlation coefficient of 0.57(N = 1324) and 76\% of data points
falling within a factor of 2 deviation. The correlation coefficient for
daily mean values drops to 0.49 (N = 23,680). The absorption AOD
({$\tau$}$_{a}$ at 670 nm) estimated in the model is poorly
correlated with measurements (r = 0.27, N = 349). It is biased low by
24\% as compared to AERONET. The model reproduces the prominent features
in the monthly mean AOD retrievals from Moderate Resolution Imaging
Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The agreement between the model and MODIS is
better over source and outflow regions (i.e., within a factor of 2).
There is an underestimation of the model by up to a factor of 3 to 5
over some remote oceans. The largest contribution to global annual
average AOD (0.12 at 550 nm) is from sulfate (0.043 or 35\%), followed by
sea salt (0.027 or 23\%), dust (0.026 or 22\%), OM (0.021 or 17\%), and BC
(0.004 or 3\%). The atmospheric aerosol absorption is predominantly
contributed by BC and is about 3\% of the total AOD. The globally and
annually averaged shortwave (SW) direct aerosol radiative perturbation
(DARP) in clear-sky conditions is -2.17 Wm$^{-2}$ and is about a
factor of 2 larger than in all-sky conditions (-1.04 Wm$^{-2}$).
The net DARP (SW + LW) by all aerosols is -1.46 and -0.59
Wm$^{-2}$ in clear- and all-sky conditions, respectively. Use of
realistic, less absorbing in SW, optical properties for dust results in
negative forcing over the dust-dominated regions.
  doi = {10.1029/2004JD004757},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Yoshioka}, M. and {Mahowald}, N. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and 
	{Luo}, C.},
  title = {{Simulation of absorbing aerosol indices for African dust}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere: constituent transport and chemistry, Global Change: Land/atmosphere interactions (1218, 1843, 3322), Atmospheric Processes: Remote sensing, Geographic Location: Africa, African dust, TOMS},
  year = 2005,
  month = sep,
  volume = 110,
  number = d9,
  eid = {D18S17},
  pages = {18},
  abstract = {{It has been speculated that the vegetation change and human land use
have modulated the dust sources in North Africa and contributed to the
observed increase of desert dust since 1960s. However, the roles of
surface disturbances on dust generation are not well constrained because
of limitations in the available data and models. This study addresses
this issue by simulating the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)
Absorbing Aerosol Indices (AAIs) for model-predicted dust and comparing
them with the observations. Model simulations are conducted for natural
topographic depression sources with and without adding sources due to
vegetation change and cultivation over North Africa. The simulated AAIs
capture the previously reported properties of TOMS AAI as well as
observed magnitude and spatial distribution reasonably well, although
there are some important disagreements with observations. Statistical
analyses of spatial and temporal patterns of simulated AAI suggest that
simulations using only the natural topographic source capture the
observed patterns better than those using 50\% of surface disturbance
sources. The AAI gradients between Sahara (north) and Sahel (south)
suggest that the best mixture of surface disturbance sources is 20-25\%,
while spatial and temporal correlations suggest that the optimum mixture
is 0-15\% with the upper bound of 25-40\%. However, sensitivity studies
show that uncertainties associated with meteorology and source
parameterization are large and may undermine the findings derived from
the simulations. Additional uncertainties will arise because of model
errors in sources, transport, and deposition. Such uncertainties in the
model simulations need to be reduced in order to constrain the roles of
different types of dust sources better using AAI simulation.
  doi = {10.1029/2004JD005276},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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