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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Risi"  ' -c year=2011 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Risi2011.txt -ob lmd_Risi2011.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/}}
  author = {{Kurita}, N. and {Noone}, D. and {Risi}, C. and {Schmidt}, G.~A. and 
	{Yamada}, H. and {Yoneyama}, K.},
  title = {{Intraseasonal isotopic variation associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {GCM, MJO, isotope, water cycle, Geochemistry: Stable isotope geochemistry (0454, 4870), Atmospheric Processes: Convective processes, Atmospheric Processes: Ocean/atmosphere interactions (0312, 4301, 4504), Atmospheric Processes: Tropical meteorology},
  year = 2011,
  month = dec,
  volume = 116,
  number = d15,
  eid = {D24101},
  pages = {24101},
  abstract = {{The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of
intraseasonal variability in the tropical atmosphere. This study
examines the evolution of the hydrologic regime from before the onset of
the MJO (pre-onset period) to the MJO onset period, using deuterated
water vapor (HDO) measurements from the Tropospheric Emission
Spectrometer (TES) and from ground-based stations. Ground-based
observations reveal a clear transition between high HDO/H$_{2}$O
isotope ratios during the pre-onset period to a period of repeated
abrupt decreases in the HDO/H$_{2}$O isotope ratio associated with
intense convection. Each observed minimum in the HDO/H$_{2}$O
ratio corresponded to a maximum in stratiform rainfall fraction, which
was derived independently from radar precipitation coverage area. The
ground-based observations are consistent with the satellite observations
of the HDO/H$_{2}$O ratio. In order to attribute the mechanisms
that bring about the isotopic changes within the MJO convection, an
isotope-enabled general circulation model (GCM) constrained by observed
meteorological fields was used to simulate this MJO period. The GCM
reproduced many of the observed isotopic features that accompanied the
onset of an MJO. After the development of deep convection, large-scale
stratiform cloud cover appears, and isotope ratios respond, as a
consequence of diffusive exchange between stratiform raindrops and the
surrounding vapor. In this diffusive exchange process, heavy isotopes
tend to become enriched in precipitation and depleted in the surrounding
vapor, and thus successive stratiform rainfall results in decreasing
isotope values in the middle and lower troposphere. On the basis of
these characteristics, isotope tracers can be used to partition
stratiform and convective rainfall from observed isotope data and to
validate the simulated proportions of convective/stratiform rainfall.
  doi = {10.1029/2010JD015209},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Braconnot}, P. and {Hoffmann}, G. and 
	{Jouzel}, J. and {Kageyama}, M. and {Landais}, A. and {Lejeune}, Q. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Sime}, L. and {Sjolte}, J. and {Swingedouw}, D. and 
	{Vinther}, B.},
  title = {{Sensitivity of interglacial Greenland temperature and {$\delta$}$^{18}$O: ice core data, orbital and increased CO$_{2}$ climate simulations}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2011,
  month = sep,
  volume = 7,
  pages = {1041-1059},
  abstract = {{The sensitivity of interglacial Greenland temperature to orbital and
CO$_{2}$ forcing is investigated using the NorthGRIP ice core data
and coupled ocean-atmosphere IPSL-CM4 model simulations. These
simulations were conducted in response to different interglacial orbital
configurations, and to increased CO$_{2}$ concentrations. These
different forcings cause very distinct simulated seasonal and
latitudinal temperature and water cycle changes, limiting the analogies
between the last interglacial and future climate. However, the IPSL-CM4
model shows similar magnitudes of Arctic summer warming and climate
feedbacks in response to 2 {\times} CO$_{2}$ and orbital forcing of
the last interglacial period (126 000 years ago). 

The IPSL-CM4 model produces a remarkably linear relationship between TOA incoming summer solar radiation and simulated changes in summer and annual mean central Greenland temperature. This contrasts with the stable isotope record from the Greenland ice cores, showing a multi-millennial lagged response to summer insolation. During the early part of interglacials, the observed lags may be explained by ice sheet-ocean feedbacks linked with changes in ice sheet elevation and the impact of meltwater on ocean circulation, as investigated with sensitivity studies.

A quantitative comparison between ice core data and climate simulations requires stability of the stable isotope - temperature relationship to be explored. Atmospheric simulations including water stable isotopes have been conducted with the LMDZiso model under different boundary conditions. This set of simulations allows calculation of a temporal Greenland isotope-temperature slope (0.3-0.4{\permil} per {\deg}C) during warmer-than-present Arctic climates, in response to increased CO$_{2}$, increased ocean temperature and orbital forcing. This temporal slope appears half as large as the modern spatial gradient and is consistent with other ice core estimates. It may, however, be model-dependent, as indicated by preliminary comparison with other models. This suggests that further simulations and detailed inter-model comparisons are also likely to be of benefit.

Comparisons with Greenland ice core stable isotope data reveals that IPSL-CM4/LMDZiso simulations strongly underestimate the amplitude of the ice core signal during the last interglacial, which could reach +8-10 {\deg}C at fixed-elevation. While the model-data mismatch may result from missing positive feedbacks (e.g. vegetation), it could also be explained by a reduced elevation of the central Greenland ice sheet surface by 300-400 m. }}, doi = {10.5194/cp-7-1041-2011}, adsurl = {}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
  author = {{Gao}, J. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Yao}, T. and {Tian}, L. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Hoffmann}, G.},
  title = {{Precipitation Water Stable Isotopes in the South Tibetan Plateau: Observations and Modeling*}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2011,
  month = jul,
  volume = 24,
  pages = {3161-3178},
  doi = {10.1175/2010JCLI3736.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Vimeux}, F. and {Tremoy}, G. and {Risi}, C. and {Gallaire}, R.
  title = {{A strong control of the South American SeeSaw on the intra-seasonal variability of the isotopic composition of precipitation in the Bolivian Andes}},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  keywords = {water stable isotopes, precipitation, Bolivia, convective activity, South American SeeSaw},
  year = 2011,
  month = jul,
  volume = 307,
  pages = {47-58},
  abstract = {{Water stable isotopes ({$\delta$}) in tropical regions are a valuable tool
to study both convective processes and climate variability provided that
local and remote controls on {$\delta$} are well known. Here, we examine
the intra-seasonal variability of the event-based isotopic composition
of precipitation ({$\delta$}D $_{Zongo}$) in the Bolivian Andes
(Zongo valley, 16{\deg}20'S-67{\deg}47'W) from September 1st, 1999 to
August 31st, 2000. We show that the local amount effect is a very poor
parameter to explain {$\delta$}D $_{Zongo}$. We thus explore the
property of water isotopes to integrate both temporal and spatial
convective activities. We first show that the local convective activity
averaged over the 7-8 days preceding the rainy event is an important
control on {$\delta$}D $_{Zongo}$ during the rainy season (\~{} 40\% of
the {$\delta$}D $_{Zongo}$ variability is captured). This could be
explained by the progressive depletion of local water vapor by
unsaturated downdrafts of convective systems. The exploration of remote
convective controls on {$\delta$}D $_{Zongo}$ shows a strong
influence of the South American SeeSaw (SASS) which is the first climate
mode controlling the precipitation variability in tropical South America
during austral summer. Our study clearly evidences that temporal and
spatial controls are not fully independent as the 7-day averaged
convection in the Zongo valley responds to the SASS. Our results are
finally used to evaluate a water isotope enabled atmospheric general
circulation model (LMDZ-iso), using the stretched grid functionality to
run zoomed simulations over the entire South American continent
(15{\deg}N-55{\deg}S; 30{\deg}-85{\deg}W). We find that zoomed simulations
capture the intra-seasonal isotopic variation and its controls, though
with an overestimated local sensitivity, and confirm the role of a
remote control on {$\delta$} according to a SASS-like dipolar structure.
  doi = {10.1016/j.epsl.2011.04.031},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Steen-Larsen}, H.~C. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Sjolte}, J. and 
	{Johnsen}, S.~J. and {Vinther}, B.~M. and {BréOn}, F.-M. and 
	{Clausen}, H.~B. and {Dahl-Jensen}, D. and {Falourd}, S. and 
	{Fettweis}, X. and {GalléE}, H. and {Jouzel}, J. and {Kageyama}, M. and 
	{Lerche}, H. and {Minster}, B. and {Picard}, G. and {Punge}, H.~J. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Salas}, D. and {Schwander}, J. and {Steffen}, K. and 
	{Sveinbj{\"o}Rnsd{\'o}ttir}, A.~E. and {Svensson}, A. and {White}, J.
  title = {{Understanding the climatic signal in the water stable isotope records from the NEEM shallow firn/ice cores in northwest Greenland}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Processes: Climate change and variability (1616, 1635, 3309, 4215, 4513), Cryosphere: Ice cores (4932), Atmospheric Processes: Boundary layer processes, Hydrology: Snow and ice (0736, 0738, 0776, 1827), Atmospheric Processes: Paleoclimatology (0473, 4900), NEEM, ice cores, Greenland},
  year = 2011,
  month = mar,
  volume = 116,
  eid = {D06108},
  pages = {6108},
  abstract = {{Samples of precipitation and atmospheric water vapor were collected
together with shallow firn/ice cores as part of the new deep drilling
project in northwest Greenland: the NEEM project. These samples were
analyzed for their isotope composition to understand the processes
affecting the climatic signal archived in the water stable isotope
records from the NEEM deep ice core. The dominant moisture source for
the snow deposited at the NEEM-site may be originating as far south as
35{\deg}N from the western part of the Atlantic Ocean. The surface
atmospheric water vapor appears in isotopic equilibrium with the snow
surface indicating a large water exchange between the atmosphere and
snowpack. The interannual variability of NEEM shallow firn/ice cores
stable isotope data covering the last {\tilde}40 years shows an
unexpectedly weak NAO signal. Regional to global atmospheric models
simulate a dominant summer precipitation in the NEEM area, suggesting
that the intermittency of modern winter precipitation is responsible for
the lack of a strong NAO imprint. The interannual variability of NEEM
isotope data however shows a strong correlation with interannual
variations of Baffin Bay sea ice cover, a relationship consistent with
air mass trajectories. NEEM deep ice core isotopic records may therefore
provide detailed information on past Baffin Bay sea ice extent. NEEM
stable water isotope content increasing trend points to a local warming
trend of {\tilde}3.0{\deg}C over the last 40 years.
  doi = {10.1029/2010JD014311},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Shi}, C. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Risi}, C. and {Eglin}, T. and 
	{Stievenard}, M. and {Pierre}, M. and {Wang}, X. and {Gao}, J. and 
	{Bréon}, F.-M. and {Zhang}, Q.-B. and {Daux}, V.},
  title = {{Sampling strategy and climatic implications of tree-ring stable isotopes on the southeast Tibetan Plateau}},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  year = 2011,
  month = jan,
  volume = 301,
  pages = {307-316},
  abstract = {{We explore the potential of tree-ring cellulose {$\delta$}$^{18}$O
and {$\delta$}$^{13}$C records for reconstructing climate variability
in the southeast Tibetan Plateau. Our sampling strategy was designed to
investigate intra and inter-tree variability, and the effects of the age
of tree on {$\delta$}$^{18}$O variation. We show that intra-tree
{$\delta$}$^{13}$C and {$\delta$}$^{18}$O variability is
negligible, and inter-tree coherence is sufficient to build robust
tree-ring {$\delta$}$^{18}$O or {$\delta$}$^{13}$C chronologies
based on only four trees. There is no evidence of an age effect
regarding {$\delta$}$^{18}$O, in contrast with tree-ring width. In
our warm and moist sampling site, young tree {$\delta$}$^{13}$C is
not clearly correlated with monthly mean meteorological data. Tree-ring
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O appears significantly anti-correlated with summer
precipitation amount, regional cloud cover, and relative humidity.
Simulations conducted with the ORCHIDEE land surface model confirm the
observed contribution of relative humidity to tree cellulose
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O, and explain the weak correlation of
{$\delta$}$^{13}$C with climate by the non-linear integration linked
with photosynthesis. Altogether, the tree-ring cellulose
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O is shown to be a promising proxy to reconstruct
regional summer moisture variability prior to the instrumental period.
  doi = {10.1016/j.epsl.2010.11.014},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
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