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@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.98}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c year=2011 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_all2011.txt -ob lmd_all2011.bib ./}}
  author = {{Bodas-Salcedo}, A. and {Webb}, M.~J. and {Bony}, S. and {Chepfer}, H. and 
	{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Klein}, S.~A. and {Zhang}, Y. and {Marchand}, R. and 
	{Haynes}, J.~M. and {Pincus}, R. and {John}, V.~O.},
  title = {{COSP: Satellite simulation software for model assessment}},
  journal = {Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
  year = 2011,
  month = aug,
  volume = 92,
  pages = {1023-1043},
  doi = {10.1175/2011BAMS2856.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Prigent}, C. and {Rochetin}, N. and {Aires}, F. and {Defer}, E. and 
	{Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Jimenez}, C. and {Papa}, F.},
  title = {{Impact of the inundation occurrence on the deep convection at continental scale from satellite observations and modeling experiments}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {convection, remote sensing, wetland, Atmospheric Processes: Atmospheric electricity, Atmospheric Processes: Convective processes},
  year = 2011,
  month = dec,
  volume = 116,
  number = d15,
  eid = {D24118},
  pages = {24118},
  abstract = {{This study is an attempt to evidence the impact of the inundation
occurrence on the deep convection at continental scale. Three sources of
satellite observations are carefully analyzed over the tropics for 3
years: A multisatellite wetland extent and dynamics data set, a deep
convective activity index derived from passive microwave satellite
measurements at 85 GHz, and precipitation estimates. Although many other
effects contribute to the variability in the convection (e.g.,
large-scale circulation and weather regimes), careful examination of the
seasonal and diurnal variations of the satellite-derived information
makes it possible to observe two distinct regimes. The first regime
corresponds to regions where the inundation is not generated by local
precipitation. There it is shown that stronger convection happens during
the minimum of the inundation, with a marked diurnal cycle of the deep
convective activity. Simulations with a single-column model are in good
agreement with these satellite observations. First, calculations show
that during the season of minimum inundation, hydrometeors are present
higher in altitude, increasing the likelihood of larger ice quantities
aloft. Second, the diurnal cycle of the convective activity related to
the presence of large ice quantities has a larger amplitude. The second
regime corresponds to regions where the inundation is directly generated
by local precipitation. There our observational analysis could not
isolate any effect of the inundation on the convection.
  doi = {10.1029/2011JD016311},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Kurita}, N. and {Noone}, D. and {Risi}, C. and {Schmidt}, G.~A. and 
	{Yamada}, H. and {Yoneyama}, K.},
  title = {{Intraseasonal isotopic variation associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {GCM, MJO, isotope, water cycle, Geochemistry: Stable isotope geochemistry (0454, 4870), Atmospheric Processes: Convective processes, Atmospheric Processes: Ocean/atmosphere interactions (0312, 4301, 4504), Atmospheric Processes: Tropical meteorology},
  year = 2011,
  month = dec,
  volume = 116,
  number = d15,
  eid = {D24101},
  pages = {24101},
  abstract = {{The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of
intraseasonal variability in the tropical atmosphere. This study
examines the evolution of the hydrologic regime from before the onset of
the MJO (pre-onset period) to the MJO onset period, using deuterated
water vapor (HDO) measurements from the Tropospheric Emission
Spectrometer (TES) and from ground-based stations. Ground-based
observations reveal a clear transition between high HDO/H$_{2}$O
isotope ratios during the pre-onset period to a period of repeated
abrupt decreases in the HDO/H$_{2}$O isotope ratio associated with
intense convection. Each observed minimum in the HDO/H$_{2}$O
ratio corresponded to a maximum in stratiform rainfall fraction, which
was derived independently from radar precipitation coverage area. The
ground-based observations are consistent with the satellite observations
of the HDO/H$_{2}$O ratio. In order to attribute the mechanisms
that bring about the isotopic changes within the MJO convection, an
isotope-enabled general circulation model (GCM) constrained by observed
meteorological fields was used to simulate this MJO period. The GCM
reproduced many of the observed isotopic features that accompanied the
onset of an MJO. After the development of deep convection, large-scale
stratiform cloud cover appears, and isotope ratios respond, as a
consequence of diffusive exchange between stratiform raindrops and the
surrounding vapor. In this diffusive exchange process, heavy isotopes
tend to become enriched in precipitation and depleted in the surrounding
vapor, and thus successive stratiform rainfall results in decreasing
isotope values in the middle and lower troposphere. On the basis of
these characteristics, isotope tracers can be used to partition
stratiform and convective rainfall from observed isotope data and to
validate the simulated proportions of convective/stratiform rainfall.
  doi = {10.1029/2010JD015209},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Kulmala}, M. and {Asmi}, A. and {Lappalainen}, H.~K. and {Baltensperger}, U. and 
	{Brenguier}, J.-L. and {Facchini}, M.~C. and {Hansson}, H.-C. and 
	{Hov}, {\O}. and {O'Dowd}, C.~D. and {P{\"o}schl}, U. and {Wiedensohler}, A. and 
	{Boers}, R. and {Boucher}, O. and {de Leeuw}, G. and {Denier van der Gon}, H.~A.~C. and 
	{Feichter}, J. and {Krejci}, R. and {Laj}, P. and {Lihavainen}, H. and 
	{Lohmann}, U. and {McFiggans}, G. and {Mentel}, T. and {Pilinis}, C. and 
	{Riipinen}, I. and {Schulz}, M. and {Stohl}, A. and {Swietlicki}, E. and 
	{Vignati}, E. and {Alves}, C. and {Amann}, M. and {Ammann}, M. and 
	{Arabas}, S. and {Artaxo}, P. and {Baars}, H. and {Beddows}, D.~C.~S. and 
	{Bergstr{\"o}m}, R. and {Beukes}, J.~P. and {Bilde}, M. and 
	{Burkhart}, J.~F. and {Canonaco}, F. and {Clegg}, S.~L. and 
	{Coe}, H. and {Crumeyrolle}, S. and {D'Anna}, B. and {Decesari}, S. and 
	{Gilardoni}, S. and {Fischer}, M. and {Fjaeraa}, A.~M. and {Fountoukis}, C. and 
	{George}, C. and {Gomes}, L. and {Halloran}, P. and {Hamburger}, T. and 
	{Harrison}, R.~M. and {Herrmann}, H. and {Hoffmann}, T. and 
	{Hoose}, C. and {Hu}, M. and {Hyv{\"a}rinen}, A. and {H{\~o}rrak}, U. and 
	{Iinuma}, Y. and {Iversen}, T. and {Josipovic}, M. and {Kanakidou}, M. and 
	{Kiendler-Scharr}, A. and {Kirkev{\aa}g}, A. and {Kiss}, G. and 
	{Klimont}, Z. and {Kolmonen}, P. and {Komppula}, M. and {Kristj{\'a}nsson}, J.-E. and 
	{Laakso}, L. and {Laaksonen}, A. and {Labonnote}, L. and {Lanz}, V.~A. and 
	{Lehtinen}, K.~E.~J. and {Rizzo}, L.~V. and {Makkonen}, R. and 
	{Manninen}, H.~E. and {McMeeking}, G. and {Merikanto}, J. and 
	{Minikin}, A. and {Mirme}, S. and {Morgan}, W.~T. and {Nemitz}, E. and 
	{O'Donnell}, D. and {Panwar}, T.~S. and {Pawlowska}, H. and 
	{Petzold}, A. and {Pienaar}, J.~J. and {Pio}, C. and {Plass-Duelmer}, C. and 
	{Prév{\^o}t}, A.~S.~H. and {Pryor}, S. and {Reddington}, C.~L. and 
	{Roberts}, G. and {Rosenfeld}, D. and {Schwarz}, J. and {Seland}, {\O}. and 
	{Sellegri}, K. and {Shen}, X.~J. and {Shiraiwa}, M. and {Siebert}, H. and 
	{Sierau}, B. and {Simpson}, D. and {Sun}, J.~Y. and {Topping}, D. and 
	{Tunved}, P. and {Vaattovaara}, P. and {Vakkari}, V. and {Veefkind}, J.~P. and 
	{Visschedijk}, A. and {Vuollekoski}, H. and {Vuolo}, R. and 
	{Wehner}, B. and {Wildt}, J. and {Woodward}, S. and {Worsnop}, D.~R. and 
	{van Zadelhoff}, G.-J. and {Zardini}, A.~A. and {Zhang}, K. and 
	{van Zyl}, P.~G. and {Kerminen}, V.-M. and {Carslaw}, K.~S. and 
	{Pandis}, S.~N.},
  title = {{General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) - integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2011,
  month = dec,
  volume = 11,
  pages = {13061-13143},
  abstract = {{In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the
European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project
(EUCAARI). EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December
2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a) a comprehensive database with
a year of observations of the physical, chemical and optical properties
of aerosol particles over Europe, (b) comprehensive aerosol measurements
in four developing countries, (c) a database of airborne measurements of
aerosols and clouds over Europe during May 2008, (d) comprehensive
modeling tools to study aerosol processes fron nano to global scale and
their effects on climate and air quality. In addition a new Pan-European
aerosol emissions inventory was developed and evaluated, a new cluster
spectrometer was built and tested in the field and several new aerosol
parameterizations and computations modules for chemical transport and
global climate models were developed and evaluated. These achievements
and related studies have substantially improved our understanding and
reduced the uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and air
quality-climate interactions. The EUCAARI results can be utilized in
European and global environmental policy to assess the aerosol impacts
and the corresponding abatement strategies.
  doi = {10.5194/acp-11-13061-2011},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Madeleine}, J.-B. and {Forget}, F. and {Millour}, E. and {Montabone}, L. and 
	{Wolff}, M.~J.},
  title = {{Revisiting the radiative impact of dust on Mars using the LMD Global Climate Model}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Hydrology: Model calibration (3333), Atmospheric Processes: Clouds and aerosols, Atmospheric Processes: Global climate models (1626, 4928), Atmospheric Processes: Radiative processes, Planetary Sciences: Solar System Objects: Mars},
  year = 2011,
  month = nov,
  volume = 116,
  number = e15,
  eid = {E11010},
  pages = {11010},
  abstract = {{Airborne dust is the main driver of Martian atmospheric temperature, and
accurately accounting for its radiative effect in Global Climate Models
(GCMs) is essential. This requires the modeling of the dust distribution
and radiative properties, and when trying to simulate the true climate
variability, the use of the observed dust column opacity to guide the
model. A recurrent problem has been the inability of Mars GCMs to
predict realistic temperatures while using both the observed dust
radiative properties and column opacity. One would have to drive the
model with a tuned opacity to reach an agreement with the observations,
thereby losing its self-consistency. In this paper, we show that using
the most recently derived dust radiative properties in the LMD
(Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique) GCM solves this
problem, which was mainly due to the underestimation of the dust single
scattering albedo in the solar domain. However, an overall warm
temperature bias remains above the 1 hPa pressure level. We therefore
refine the model by implementing a {\ldquo}semi-interactive{\rdquo} dust
transport scheme which is coupled to the radiative transfer
calculations. This scheme allows a better representation of the dust
layer depth in the model and thereby removes the remaining warm bias.
The LMD/GCM is now able to predict accurate temperatures without any
tuning of the dust opacity used to guide the model. Remaining
discrepancies are discussed, and seem to be primarily due to the neglect
of the radiative effect of water-ice clouds, and secondarily to
persisting uncertainties in the dust spatial distribution.
  doi = {10.1029/2011JE003855},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Guemas}, V. and {Codron}, F.},
  title = {{Differing Impacts of Resolution Changes in Latitude and Longitude on the Midlatitudes in the LMDZ Atmospheric GCM}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2011,
  month = nov,
  volume = 24,
  pages = {5831-5849},
  doi = {10.1175/2011JCLI4093.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Kerber}, L. and {Head}, J.~W. and {Madeleine}, J.-B. and {Forget}, F. and 
	{Wilson}, L.},
  title = {{The dispersal of pyroclasts from Apollinaris Patera, Mars: Implications for the origin of the Medusae Fossae Formation}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2011,
  month = nov,
  volume = 216,
  pages = {212-220},
  abstract = {{The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) has long been thought to be of
Amazonian age, but recent studies propose that a significant part of its
emplacement occurred in the Hesperian and that many of the Amazonian
ages represent modification (erosional and redepositional) ages. On the
basis of the new formational age, we assess the hypothesis that
explosive eruptions from Apollinaris Patera might have been the source
of the Medusae Fossae Formation. In order to assess the likelihood of
this hypothesis, we examine stratigraphic relationships between
Apollinaris Patera and the MFF and analyze the relief of the MFF using
topographic data. We predict the areal distribution of tephra erupted
from Apollinaris Patera using a Mars Global Circulation Model (GCM)
combined with a semi-analytical explosive eruption model for Mars, and
compare this with the distribution of the MFF. We conclude that
Apollinaris Patera could have been responsible for the emplacement of
the Medusae Fossae Formation.
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2011.07.035},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Fastook}, J.~L. and {Head}, J.~W. and {Forget}, F. and {Madeleine}, J.-B. and 
	{Marchant}, D.~R.},
  title = {{Evidence for Amazonian northern mid-latitude regional glacial landsystems on Mars: Glacial flow models using GCM-driven climate results and comparisons to geological observations}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2011,
  month = nov,
  volume = 216,
  pages = {23-39},
  abstract = {{A fretted valley system on Mars located at the northern mid-latitude
dichotomy boundary contains lineated valley fill (LVF) with extensive
flow-like features interpreted to be glacial in origin. We have modeled
this deposit using glacial flow models linked to atmospheric general
circulation models (GCM) for conditions consistent with the deposition
of snow and ice in amounts sufficient to explain the interpreted
glaciation. In the first glacial flow model simulation, sources were
modeled in the alcoves only and were found to be consistent with the
alpine valley glaciation interpretation for various environments of flow
in the system. These results supported the interpretation of the
observed LVF deposits as resulting from initial ice accumulation in the
alcoves, accompanied by debris cover that led to advancing alpine
glacial landsystems to the extent observed today, with preservation of
their flow texture and the underlying ice during downwasting in the
waning stages of glaciation. In the second glacial flow model
simulation, the regional accumulation patterns predicted by a GCM linked
to simulation of a glacial period were used. This glacial flow model
simulation produced a much wider region of thick ice accumulation, and
significant glaciation on the plateaus and in the regional plains
surrounding the dichotomy boundary. Deglaciation produced decreasing ice
thicknesses, with flow centered on the fretted valleys. As plateaus lost
ice, scarps and cliffs of the valley and dichotomy boundary walls were
exposed, providing considerable potential for the production of a rock
debris cover that could preserve the underlying ice and the surface flow
patterns seen today. In this model, the lineated valley fill and lobate
debris aprons were the product of final retreat and downwasting of a
much larger, regional glacial landsystem, rather than representing the
maximum extent of an alpine valley glacial landsystem. These results
favor the interpretation that periods of mid-latitude glaciation were
characterized by extensive plateau and plains ice cover, rather than
being restricted to alcoves and adjacent valleys, and that the observed
lineated valley fill and lobate debris aprons represent debris-covered
residual remnants of a once more extensive glaciation.
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2011.07.018},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Johns}, T.~C. and {Royer}, J.-F. and {H{\"o}schel}, I. and 
	{Huebener}, H. and {Roeckner}, E. and {Manzini}, E. and {May}, W. and 
	{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Otter{\aa}}, O.~H. and {van Vuuren}, D.~P. and 
	{Salas Y Melia}, D. and {Giorgetta}, M.~A. and {Denvil}, S. and 
	{Yang}, S. and {Fogli}, P.~G. and {K{\"o}rper}, J. and {Tjiputra}, J.~F. and 
	{Stehfest}, E. and {Hewitt}, C.~D.},
  title = {{Climate change under aggressive mitigation: the ENSEMBLES multi-model experiment}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate, Climate change, Carbon cycle, Projections, Mitigation, Stabilization, Allowable emissions, Emissions reduction, Earth system model, Multi-model, ENSEMBLES, CMIP5},
  year = 2011,
  month = nov,
  volume = 37,
  pages = {1975-2003},
  abstract = {{We present results from multiple comprehensive models used to simulate
an aggressive mitigation scenario based on detailed results of an
Integrated Assessment Model. The experiment employs ten global climate
and Earth System models (GCMs and ESMs) and pioneers elements of the
long-term experimental design for the forthcoming 5th Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change assessment. Atmospheric carbon-dioxide
concentrations pathways rather than carbon emissions are specified in
all models, including five ESMs that contain interactive carbon cycles.
Specified forcings also include minor greenhouse gas concentration
pathways, ozone concentration, aerosols (via concentrations or precursor
emissions) and land use change (in five models). The new aggressive
mitigation scenario (E1), constructed using an integrated assessment
model (IMAGE 2.4) with reduced fossil fuel use for energy production
aimed at stabilizing global warming below 2 K, is studied alongside the
medium-high non-mitigation scenario SRES A1B. Resulting twenty-first
century global mean warming and precipitation changes for A1B are
broadly consistent with previous studies. In E1 twenty-first century
global warming remains below 2 K in most models, but global mean
precipitation changes are higher than in A1B up to 2065 and consistently
higher per degree of warming. The spread in global temperature and
precipitation responses is partly attributable to inter-model variations
in aerosol loading and representations of aerosol-related radiative
forcing effects. Our study illustrates that the benefits of mitigation
will not be realised in temperature terms until several decades after
emissions reductions begin, and may vary considerably between regions. A
subset of the models containing integrated carbon cycles agree that land
and ocean sinks remove roughly half of present day anthropogenic carbon
emissions from the atmosphere, and that anthropogenic carbon emissions
must decrease by at least 50\% by 2050 relative to 1990, with further
large reductions needed beyond that to achieve the E1 concentrations
pathway. Negative allowable anthropogenic carbon emissions at and beyond
2100 cannot be ruled out for the E1 scenario. There is self-consistency
between the multi-model ensemble of allowable anthropogenic carbon
emissions and the E1 scenario emissions from IMAGE 2.4.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-011-1005-5},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bellouin}, N. and {Rae}, J. and {Jones}, A. and {Johnson}, C. and 
	{Haywood}, J. and {Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{Aerosol forcing in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) simulations by HadGEM2-ES and the role of ammonium nitrate}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {CMIP5, aerosol forcing, climate change, nitrate, sulfate, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Global Change: Earth system modeling (1225, 4316), Global Change: Global climate models (3337, 4928), Atmospheric Processes: Clouds and aerosols},
  year = 2011,
  month = oct,
  volume = 116,
  number = d15,
  eid = {D20206},
  pages = {20206},
  abstract = {{The latest Hadley Centre climate model, HadGEM2-ES, includes Earth
system components such as interactive chemistry and eight species of
tropospheric aerosols. It has been run for the period 1860-2100 in
support of the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project
(CMIP5). Anthropogenic aerosol emissions peak between 1980 and 2020,
resulting in a present-day all-sky top of the atmosphere aerosol forcing
of -1.6 and -1.4 W m$^{-2}$ with and without ammonium nitrate
aerosols, respectively, for the sum of direct and first indirect aerosol
forcings. Aerosol forcing becomes significantly weaker in the 21st
century, being weaker than -0.5 W m$^{-2}$ in 2100 without
nitrate. However, nitrate aerosols become the dominant species in Europe
and Asia and decelerate the decrease in global mean aerosol forcing.
Considering nitrate aerosols makes aerosol radiative forcing 2-4 times
stronger by 2100 depending on the representative concentration pathway,
although this impact is lessened when changes in the oxidation
properties of the atmosphere are accounted for. Anthropogenic aerosol
residence times increase in the future in spite of increased
precipitation, as cloud cover and aerosol-cloud interactions decrease in
tropical and midlatitude regions. Deposition of fossil fuel black carbon
onto snow and ice surfaces peaks during the 20th century in the Arctic
and Europe but keeps increasing in the Himalayas until the middle of the
21st century. Results presented here confirm the importance of aerosols
in influencing the Earth's climate, albeit with a reduced impact in the
future, and suggest that nitrate aerosols will partially replace
sulphate aerosols to become an important anthropogenic species in the
remainder of the 21st century.
  doi = {10.1029/2011JD016074},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Haywood}, J.~M. and {Bellouin}, N. and {Jones}, A. and {Boucher}, O. and 
	{Wild}, M. and {Shine}, K.~P.},
  title = {{The roles of aerosol, water vapor and cloud in future global dimming/brightening}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {aerosols, global brightening, global dimming, water vapor, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Radiation: transmission and scattering, Atmospheric Processes: Clouds and aerosols, Oceanography: Biological and Chemical: Aerosols (0305, 4906)},
  year = 2011,
  month = oct,
  volume = 116,
  number = d15,
  eid = {D20203},
  pages = {20203},
  abstract = {{Observational evidence indicates significant regional trends in solar
radiation at the surface in both all-sky and cloud-free conditions.
Negative trends in the downwelling solar surface irradiance (SSI) have
become known as `dimming' while positive trends have become known as
`brightening'. We use the Met Office Hadley Centre HadGEM2 climate model
to model trends in cloud-free and total SSI from the pre-industrial to
the present-day and compare these against observations. Simulations
driven by CMIP5 emissions are used to model the future trends in
dimming/brightening up to the year 2100. The modeled trends are
reasonably consistent with observed regional trends in dimming and
brightening which are due to changes in concentrations in anthropogenic
aerosols and, potentially, changes in cloud cover owing to the aerosol
indirect effects and/or cloud feedback mechanisms. The future
dimming/brightening in cloud-free SSI is not only caused by changes in
anthropogenic aerosols: aerosol impacts are overwhelmed by a large
dimming caused by increases in water vapor. There is little trend in the
total SSI as cloud cover decreases in the climate model used here, and
compensates the effect of the change in water vapor. In terms of the
surface energy balance, these trends in SSI are obviously more than
compensated by the increase in the downwelling terrestrial irradiance
from increased water vapor concentrations. However, the study shows that
while water vapor is widely appreciated as a greenhouse gas, water vapor
impacts on the atmospheric transmission of solar radiation and the
future of global dimming/brightening should not be overlooked.
  doi = {10.1029/2011JD016000},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Teixeira}, J. and {Cardoso}, S. and {Bonazzola}, M. and {Cole}, J. and 
	{Delgenio}, A. and {Demott}, C. and {Franklin}, C. and {Hannay}, C. and 
	{Jakob}, C. and {Jiao}, Y. and {Karlsson}, J. and {Kitagawa}, H. and 
	{K{\"o}hler}, M. and {Kuwano-Yoshida}, A. and {Ledrian}, C. and 
	{Li}, J. and {Lock}, A. and {Miller}, M.~J. and {Marquet}, P. and 
	{Martins}, J. and {Mechoso}, C.~R. and {Meijgaard}, E.~V. and 
	{Meinke}, I. and {Miranda}, P.~M.~A. and {Mironov}, D. and {Neggers}, R. and 
	{Pan}, H.~L. and {Randall}, D.~A. and {Rasch}, P.~J. and {Rockel}, B. and 
	{Rossow}, W.~B. and {Ritter}, B. and {Siebesma}, A.~P. and {Soares}, P.~M.~M. and 
	{Turk}, F.~J. and {Vaillancourt}, P.~A. and {von Engeln}, A. and 
	{Zhao}, M.},
  title = {{Tropical and Subtropical Cloud Transitions in Weather and Climate Prediction Models: The GCSS/WGNE Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison (GPCI)}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2011,
  month = oct,
  volume = 24,
  pages = {5223-5256},
  doi = {10.1175/2011JCLI3672.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Chen}, W. and {Jiang}, Z. and {Li}, L.},
  title = {{Probabilistic Projections of Climate Change over China under the SRES A1B Scenario Using 28 AOGCMs}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2011,
  month = sep,
  volume = 24,
  pages = {4741-4756},
  doi = {10.1175/2011JCLI4102.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Hanappe}, P. and {Beurivé}, A. and {Laguzet}, F. and {Steels}, L. and 
	{Bellouin}, N. and {Boucher}, O. and {Yamazaki}, Y.~H. and {Aina}, T. and 
	{Allen}, M.},
  title = {{FAMOUS, faster: using parallel computing techniques to accelerate the FAMOUS/HadCM3 climate model with a focus on the radiative transfer algorithm}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2011,
  month = sep,
  volume = 4,
  pages = {835-844},
  abstract = {{We have optimised the atmospheric radiation algorithm of the FAMOUS
climate model on several hardware platforms. The optimisation involved
translating the Fortran code to C and restructuring the algorithm around
the computation of a single air column. Instead of the existing
MPI-based domain decomposition, we used a task queue and a thread pool
to schedule the computation of individual columns on the available
processors. Finally, four air columns are packed together in a single
data structure and computed simultaneously using Single Instruction
Multiple Data operations. 

The modified algorithm runs more than 50 times faster on the CELL's Synergistic Processing Element than on its main PowerPC processing element. On Intel-compatible processors, the new radiation code runs 4 times faster. On the tested graphics processor, using OpenCL, we find a speed-up of more than 2.5 times as compared to the original code on the main CPU. Because the radiation code takes more than 60 \% of the total CPU time, FAMOUS executes more than twice as fast. Our version of the algorithm returns bit-wise identical results, which demonstrates the robustness of our approach. We estimate that this project required around two and a half man-years of work. }}, doi = {10.5194/gmd-4-835-2011}, adsurl = {}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
  author = {{Clark}, D.~B. and {Mercado}, L.~M. and {Sitch}, S. and {Jones}, C.~D. and 
	{Gedney}, N. and {Best}, M.~J. and {Pryor}, M. and {Rooney}, G.~G. and 
	{Essery}, R.~L.~H. and {Blyth}, E. and {Boucher}, O. and {Harding}, R.~J. and 
	{Huntingford}, C. and {Cox}, P.~M.},
  title = {{The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), model description - Part 2: Carbon fluxes and vegetation dynamics}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2011,
  month = sep,
  volume = 4,
  pages = {701-722},
  abstract = {{The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) is a process-based model
that simulates the fluxes of carbon, water, energy and momentum between
the land surface and the atmosphere. Many studies have demonstrated the
important role of the land surface in the functioning of the Earth
System. Different versions of JULES have been employed to quantify the
effects on the land carbon sink of climate change, increasing
atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, changing atmospheric aerosols
and tropospheric ozone, and the response of methane emissions from
wetlands to climate change. 

This paper describes the consolidation of these advances in the modelling of carbon fluxes and stores, in both the vegetation and soil, in version 2.2 of JULES. Features include a multi-layer canopy scheme for light interception, including a sunfleck penetration scheme, a coupled scheme of leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, representation of the effects of ozone on leaf physiology, and a description of methane emissions from wetlands. JULES represents the carbon allocation, growth and population dynamics of five plant functional types. The turnover of carbon from living plant tissues is fed into a 4-pool soil carbon model.

The process-based descriptions of key ecological processes and trace gas fluxes in JULES mean that this community model is well-suited for use in carbon cycle, climate change and impacts studies, either in standalone mode or as the land component of a coupled Earth system model. }}, doi = {10.5194/gmd-4-701-2011}, adsurl = {}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
  author = {{Best}, M.~J. and {Pryor}, M. and {Clark}, D.~B. and {Rooney}, G.~G. and 
	{Essery}, R.~L.~H. and {Ménard}, C.~B. and {Edwards}, J.~M. and 
	{Hendry}, M.~A. and {Porson}, A. and {Gedney}, N. and {Mercado}, L.~M. and 
	{Sitch}, S. and {Blyth}, E. and {Boucher}, O. and {Cox}, P.~M. and 
	{Grimmond}, C.~S.~B. and {Harding}, R.~J.},
  title = {{The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), model description - Part 1: Energy and water fluxes}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2011,
  month = sep,
  volume = 4,
  pages = {677-699},
  abstract = {{This manuscript describes the energy and water components of a new
community land surface model called the Joint UK Land Environment
Simulator (JULES). This is developed from the Met Office Surface
Exchange Scheme (MOSES). It can be used as a stand alone land surface
model driven by observed forcing data, or coupled to an atmospheric
global circulation model. The JULES model has been coupled to the Met
Office Unified Model (UM) and as such provides a unique opportunity for
the research community to contribute their research to improve both
world-leading operational weather forecasting and climate change
prediction systems. In addition JULES, and its forerunner MOSES, have
been the basis for a number of very high-profile papers concerning the
land-surface and climate over the last decade. JULES has a modular
structure aligned to physical processes, providing the basis for a
flexible modelling platform.
  doi = {10.5194/gmd-4-677-2011},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Braconnot}, P. and {Hoffmann}, G. and 
	{Jouzel}, J. and {Kageyama}, M. and {Landais}, A. and {Lejeune}, Q. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Sime}, L. and {Sjolte}, J. and {Swingedouw}, D. and 
	{Vinther}, B.},
  title = {{Sensitivity of interglacial Greenland temperature and {$\delta$}$^{18}$O: ice core data, orbital and increased CO$_{2}$ climate simulations}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2011,
  month = sep,
  volume = 7,
  pages = {1041-1059},
  abstract = {{The sensitivity of interglacial Greenland temperature to orbital and
CO$_{2}$ forcing is investigated using the NorthGRIP ice core data
and coupled ocean-atmosphere IPSL-CM4 model simulations. These
simulations were conducted in response to different interglacial orbital
configurations, and to increased CO$_{2}$ concentrations. These
different forcings cause very distinct simulated seasonal and
latitudinal temperature and water cycle changes, limiting the analogies
between the last interglacial and future climate. However, the IPSL-CM4
model shows similar magnitudes of Arctic summer warming and climate
feedbacks in response to 2 {\times} CO$_{2}$ and orbital forcing of
the last interglacial period (126 000 years ago). 

The IPSL-CM4 model produces a remarkably linear relationship between TOA incoming summer solar radiation and simulated changes in summer and annual mean central Greenland temperature. This contrasts with the stable isotope record from the Greenland ice cores, showing a multi-millennial lagged response to summer insolation. During the early part of interglacials, the observed lags may be explained by ice sheet-ocean feedbacks linked with changes in ice sheet elevation and the impact of meltwater on ocean circulation, as investigated with sensitivity studies.

A quantitative comparison between ice core data and climate simulations requires stability of the stable isotope - temperature relationship to be explored. Atmospheric simulations including water stable isotopes have been conducted with the LMDZiso model under different boundary conditions. This set of simulations allows calculation of a temporal Greenland isotope-temperature slope (0.3-0.4{\permil} per {\deg}C) during warmer-than-present Arctic climates, in response to increased CO$_{2}$, increased ocean temperature and orbital forcing. This temporal slope appears half as large as the modern spatial gradient and is consistent with other ice core estimates. It may, however, be model-dependent, as indicated by preliminary comparison with other models. This suggests that further simulations and detailed inter-model comparisons are also likely to be of benefit.

Comparisons with Greenland ice core stable isotope data reveals that IPSL-CM4/LMDZiso simulations strongly underestimate the amplitude of the ice core signal during the last interglacial, which could reach +8-10 {\deg}C at fixed-elevation. While the model-data mismatch may result from missing positive feedbacks (e.g. vegetation), it could also be explained by a reduced elevation of the central Greenland ice sheet surface by 300-400 m. }}, doi = {10.5194/cp-7-1041-2011}, adsurl = {}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
  author = {{Johns}, T.~C. and {Royer}, J.-F. and {H{\"o}schel}, I. and 
	{Huebener}, H. and {Roeckner}, E. and {Manzini}, E. and {May}, W. and 
	{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Otter{\aa}}, O.~H. and {van Vuuren}, D.~P. and 
	{Salas Y Melia}, D. and {Giorgetta}, M.~A. and {Denvil}, S. and 
	{Yang}, S. and {Fogli}, P.~G. and {K{\"o}rper}, J. and {Tjiputra}, J.~F. and 
	{Stehfest}, E. and {Hewitt}, C.~D.},
  title = {{Erratum to: Climate change under aggressive mitigation: the ENSEMBLES multi-model experiment}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2011,
  month = sep,
  volume = 37,
  pages = {1269-1270},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-011-1102-5},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Aires}, F. and {Marquisseau}, F. and {Prigent}, C. and {Sèze}, G.
  title = {{A Land and Ocean Microwave Cloud Classification Algorithm Derived from AMSU-A and -B, Trained Using MSG-SEVIRI Infrared and Visible Observations}},
  journal = {Monthly Weather Review},
  year = 2011,
  month = aug,
  volume = 139,
  pages = {2347-2366},
  doi = {10.1175/MWR-D-10-05012.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Verma}, S. and {Venkataraman}, C. and {Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{Attribution of aerosol radiative forcing over India during the winter monsoon to emissions from source categories and geographical regions}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Environment},
  year = 2011,
  month = aug,
  volume = 45,
  pages = {4398-4407},
  abstract = {{We examine the aerosol radiative effects due to aerosols emitted from
different emission sectors (anthropogenic and natural) and originating
from different geographical regions within and outside India during the
northeast (NE) Indian winter monsoon (January-March). These studies are
carried out through aerosol transport simulations in the general
circulation (GCM) model of the Laboratoire de Météorologie
Dynamique (LMD). The model estimates of aerosol single scattering albedo
(SSA) show lower values (0.86-0.92) over the region north to 10{\deg}N
comprising of the Indian subcontinent, Bay of Bengal, and parts of the
Arabian Sea compared to the region south to 10{\deg}N where the estimated
SSA values lie in the range 0.94-0.98. The model estimated SSA is
consistent with the SSA values inferred through measurements on various
platforms. Aerosols of anthropogenic origin reduce the incoming solar
radiation at the surface by a factor of 10-20 times the reduction due to
natural aerosols. At the top-of-atmosphere (TOA), aerosols from biofuel
use cause positive forcing compared to the negative forcing from fossil
fuel and natural sources in correspondence with the distribution of SSA
which is estimated to be the lowest (0.7-0.78) from biofuel combustion
emissions. Aerosols originating from India and Africa-west Asia lead to
the reduction in surface radiation (-3 to -8 W m $^{-2}$) by
40-60\% of the total reduction in surface radiation due to all aerosols
over the Indian subcontinent and adjoining ocean. Aerosols originating
from India and Africa-west Asia also lead to positive radiative effects
at TOA over the Arabian Sea, central India (CNI), with the highest
positive radiative effects over the Bay of Bengal and cause either
negative or positive effects over the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP).
  doi = {10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.05.048},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Huneeus}, N. and {Schulz}, M. and {Balkanski}, Y. and {Griesfeller}, J. and 
	{Prospero}, J. and {Kinne}, S. and {Bauer}, S. and {Boucher}, O. and 
	{Chin}, M. and {Dentener}, F. and {Diehl}, T. and {Easter}, R. and 
	{Fillmore}, D. and {Ghan}, S. and {Ginoux}, P. and {Grini}, A. and 
	{Horowitz}, L. and {Koch}, D. and {Krol}, M.~C. and {Landing}, W. and 
	{Liu}, X. and {Mahowald}, N. and {Miller}, R. and {Morcrette}, J.-J. and 
	{Myhre}, G. and {Penner}, J. and {Perlwitz}, J. and {Stier}, P. and 
	{Takemura}, T. and {Zender}, C.~S.},
  title = {{Global dust model intercomparison in AeroCom phase I}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2011,
  month = aug,
  volume = 11,
  pages = {7781-7816},
  abstract = {{This study presents the results of a broad intercomparison of a total of
15 global aerosol models within the AeroCom project. Each model is
compared to observations related to desert dust aerosols, their direct
radiative effect, and their impact on the biogeochemical cycle, i.e.,
aerosol optical depth (AOD) and dust deposition. Additional comparisons
to Angstr{\"o}m exponent (AE), coarse mode AOD and dust surface
concentrations are included to extend the assessment of model
performance and to identify common biases present in models. These data
comprise a benchmark dataset that is proposed for model inspection and
future dust model development. There are large differences among the
global models that simulate the dust cycle and its impact on climate. In
general, models simulate the climatology of vertically integrated
parameters (AOD and AE) within a factor of two whereas the total
deposition and surface concentration are reproduced within a factor of
10. In addition, smaller mean normalized bias and root mean square
errors are obtained for the climatology of AOD and AE than for total
deposition and surface concentration. Characteristics of the datasets
used and their uncertainties may influence these differences. Large
uncertainties still exist with respect to the deposition fluxes in the
southern oceans. Further measurements and model studies are necessary to
assess the general model performance to reproduce dust deposition in
ocean regions sensible to iron contributions. Models overestimate the
wet deposition in regions dominated by dry deposition. They generally
simulate more realistic surface concentration at stations downwind of
the main sources than at remote ones. Most models simulate the gradient
in AOD and AE between the different dusty regions. However the
seasonality and magnitude of both variables is better simulated at
African stations than Middle East ones. The models simulate the offshore
transport of West Africa throughout the year but they overestimate the
AOD and they transport too fine particles. The models also reproduce the
dust transport across the Atlantic in the summer in terms of both AOD
and AE but not so well in winter-spring nor the southward displacement
of the dust cloud that is responsible of the dust transport into South
America. Based on the dependency of AOD on aerosol burden and size
distribution we use model bias with respect to AOD and AE to infer the
bias of the dust emissions in Africa and the Middle East. According to
this analysis we suggest that a range of possible emissions for North
Africa is 400 to 2200 Tg yr$^{-1}$ and in the Middle East 26 to
526 Tg yr$^{-1}$.
  doi = {10.5194/acp-11-7781-2011},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Gao}, J. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Yao}, T. and {Tian}, L. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Hoffmann}, G.},
  title = {{Precipitation Water Stable Isotopes in the South Tibetan Plateau: Observations and Modeling*}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2011,
  month = jul,
  volume = 24,
  pages = {3161-3178},
  doi = {10.1175/2010JCLI3736.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Vimeux}, F. and {Tremoy}, G. and {Risi}, C. and {Gallaire}, R.
  title = {{A strong control of the South American SeeSaw on the intra-seasonal variability of the isotopic composition of precipitation in the Bolivian Andes}},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  keywords = {water stable isotopes, precipitation, Bolivia, convective activity, South American SeeSaw},
  year = 2011,
  month = jul,
  volume = 307,
  pages = {47-58},
  abstract = {{Water stable isotopes ({$\delta$}) in tropical regions are a valuable tool
to study both convective processes and climate variability provided that
local and remote controls on {$\delta$} are well known. Here, we examine
the intra-seasonal variability of the event-based isotopic composition
of precipitation ({$\delta$}D $_{Zongo}$) in the Bolivian Andes
(Zongo valley, 16{\deg}20'S-67{\deg}47'W) from September 1st, 1999 to
August 31st, 2000. We show that the local amount effect is a very poor
parameter to explain {$\delta$}D $_{Zongo}$. We thus explore the
property of water isotopes to integrate both temporal and spatial
convective activities. We first show that the local convective activity
averaged over the 7-8 days preceding the rainy event is an important
control on {$\delta$}D $_{Zongo}$ during the rainy season (\~{} 40\% of
the {$\delta$}D $_{Zongo}$ variability is captured). This could be
explained by the progressive depletion of local water vapor by
unsaturated downdrafts of convective systems. The exploration of remote
convective controls on {$\delta$}D $_{Zongo}$ shows a strong
influence of the South American SeeSaw (SASS) which is the first climate
mode controlling the precipitation variability in tropical South America
during austral summer. Our study clearly evidences that temporal and
spatial controls are not fully independent as the 7-day averaged
convection in the Zongo valley responds to the SASS. Our results are
finally used to evaluate a water isotope enabled atmospheric general
circulation model (LMDZ-iso), using the stretched grid functionality to
run zoomed simulations over the entire South American continent
(15{\deg}N-55{\deg}S; 30{\deg}-85{\deg}W). We find that zoomed simulations
capture the intra-seasonal isotopic variation and its controls, though
with an overestimated local sensitivity, and confirm the role of a
remote control on {$\delta$} according to a SASS-like dipolar structure.
  doi = {10.1016/j.epsl.2011.04.031},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Wordsworth}, R.~D. and {Forget}, F. and {Selsis}, F. and {Millour}, E. and 
	{Charnay}, B. and {Madeleine}, J.-B.},
  title = {{Gliese 581d is the First Discovered Terrestrial-mass Exoplanet in the Habitable Zone}},
  journal = {\apjl},
  archiveprefix = {arXiv},
  eprint = {1105.1031},
  primaryclass = {astro-ph.EP},
  keywords = {astrobiology, planets and satellites: atmospheres, planet-star interactions, techniques: spectroscopic},
  year = 2011,
  month = jun,
  volume = 733,
  eid = {L48},
  pages = {L48},
  abstract = {{It has been suggested that the recently discovered exoplanet GJ581d
might be able to support liquid water due to its relatively low mass and
orbital distance. However, GJ581d receives 35\% less stellar energy than
Mars and is probably locked in tidal resonance, with extremely low
insolation at the poles and possibly a permanent night side. Under such
conditions, it is unknown whether any habitable climate on the planet
would be able to withstand global glaciation and/or atmospheric
collapse. Here we present three-dimensional climate simulations which
demonstrate that GJ581d will have a stable atmosphere and surface liquid
water for a wide range of plausible cases, making it the first confirmed
super-Earth (exoplanet of 2-10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone. We
find that atmospheres with over 10 bar CO$_{2}$ and varying
amounts of background gas (e.g., N$_{2}$) yield global mean
temperatures above 0{\deg}C for both land and ocean-covered surfaces.
Based on the emitted IR radiation calculated by the model, we propose
observational tests that will allow these cases to be distinguished from
other possible scenarios in the future.
  doi = {10.1088/2041-8205/733/2/L48},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lothon}, M. and {Campistron}, B. and {Chong}, M. and {Couvreux}, F. and 
	{Guichard}, F. and {Rio}, C. and {Williams}, E.},
  title = {{Life Cycle of a Mesoscale Circular Gust Front Observed by a C-Band Doppler Radar in West Africa}},
  journal = {Monthly Weather Review},
  year = 2011,
  month = may,
  volume = 139,
  pages = {1370-1388},
  doi = {10.1175/2010MWR3480.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Pilorget}, C. and {Forget}, F. and {Millour}, E. and {Vincendon}, M. and 
	{Madeleine}, J.~B.},
  title = {{Dark spots and cold jets in the polar regions of Mars: New clues from a thermal model of surface CO $_{2}$ ice}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2011,
  month = may,
  volume = 213,
  pages = {131-149},
  abstract = {{Observations of the martian CO $_{2}$ ice cap in late winter and
spring have revealed exotic phenomena. Unusual dark spots, fans and
blotches form as the south-polar seasonal CO $_{2}$ ice cap
retreats. The formation mechanisms of these features are not clearly
understood. Theoretical models suggest that photons could penetrate deep
into the CO $_{2}$ ice down to the regolith, leading to basal
sublimation and gas and dust ejection. We have developed a detailed
thermal model able to simulate the temporal evolution of the regolith-CO
$_{2}$ ice layer-atmosphere column. It takes into account heat
conduction, radiative transfer within the ice and the atmosphere, and
latent heat exchange when there is a phase transition. We found that a
specific algorithm, fully coupling these three components, was needed to
properly predict ice sublimation below the surface. Our model allows us
to determine under what conditions basal sublimation is possible and
thus when and where it can occur on Mars. Our results show that basal
sublimation is possible if we consider large pathlengths and very little
dust content within the ice. Moreover, the model can explain how dark
spots can appear very early after the end of the polar night at high
latitudes. We also evaluate the importance of the different parameters
in our simulations. Contrary to what was suggested by theoretical
models, the role of seasonal thermal waves is found to be limited. Solar
radiation alone can initiate basal sublimation, which therefore only
depends on the CO $_{2}$ ice properties. Three main modes were
identified: one where condensation/sublimation only occurs at the
surface (in the case of small grains and/or high dust content), one
where basal sublimation is possible (large pathlengths and very little
dust content) and an intermediate mode where sublimation within the ice
may occur. We suggest that these different modes could be keys to
understanding many processes that occur at the surface of Mars, like the
anticryptic area behavior or the recent reported activity in gullies.
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2011.01.031},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Léger}, A. and {Grasset}, O. and {Fegley}, B. and {Codron}, F. and 
	{Albarede}, A.~F. and {Barge}, P. and {Barnes}, R. and {Cance}, P. and 
	{Carpy}, S. and {Catalano}, F. and {Cavarroc}, C. and {Demangeon}, O. and 
	{Ferraz-Mello}, S. and {Gabor}, P. and {Grie{\ss}meier}, J.-M. and 
	{Leibacher}, J. and {Libourel}, G. and {Maurin}, A.-S. and {Raymond}, S.~N. and 
	{Rouan}, D. and {Samuel}, B. and {Schaefer}, L. and {Schneider}, J. and 
	{Schuller}, P.~A. and {Selsis}, F. and {Sotin}, C.},
  title = {{The extreme physical properties of the CoRoT-7b super-Earth}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  archiveprefix = {arXiv},
  eprint = {1102.1629},
  primaryclass = {astro-ph.EP},
  year = 2011,
  month = may,
  volume = 213,
  pages = {1-11},
  abstract = {{The search for rocky exoplanets plays an important role in our quest for
extra-terrestrial life. Here, we discuss the extreme physical properties
possible for the first characterised rocky super-Earth, CoRoT-7b ( R
$_{pl}$ = 1.58 {\plusmn} 0.10 R $_{Earth}$, M $_{pl}$ =
6.9 {\plusmn} 1.2 M $_{Earth}$). It is extremely close to its star
( a = 0.0171 AU = 4.48 R $_{st}$), with its spin and orbital
rotation likely synchronised. The comparison of its location in the ( M
$_{pl}$, R $_{pl}$) plane with the predictions of planetary
models for different compositions points to an Earth-like composition,
even if the error bars of the measured quantities and the partial
degeneracy of the models prevent a definitive conclusion. The proximity
to its star provides an additional constraint on the model. It implies a
high extreme-UV flux and particle wind, and the corresponding efficient
erosion of the planetary atmosphere especially for volatile species
including water. Consequently, we make the working hypothesis that the
planet is rocky with no volatiles in its atmosphere, and derive the
physical properties that result. As a consequence, the atmosphere is
made of rocky vapours with a very low pressure ( P {\les} 1.5 Pa), no
cloud can be sustained, and no thermalisation of the planet is expected.
The dayside is very hot (2474 {\plusmn} 71 K at the sub-stellar point)
while the nightside is very cold (50-75 K). The sub-stellar point is as
hot as the tungsten filament of an incandescent bulb, resulting in the
melting and distillation of silicate rocks and the formation of a lava
ocean. These possible features of CoRoT-7b could be common to many small
and hot planets, including the recently discovered Kepler-10b. They
define a new class of objects that we propose to name '' Lava-ocean
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2011.02.004},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{Atmospheric science: Seeing through contrails}},
  journal = {Nature Climate Change},
  year = 2011,
  month = apr,
  volume = 1,
  pages = {24-25},
  abstract = {{Contrails formed by aircraft can evolve into cirrus clouds
indistinguishable from those formed naturally. These 'spreading
contrails' may be causing more climate warming today than all the carbon
dioxide emitted by aircraft since the start of aviation.
  doi = {10.1038/nclimate1078},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Spiga}, A. and {Forget}, F. and {Madeleine}, J.-B. and {Montabone}, L. and 
	{Lewis}, S.~R. and {Millour}, E.},
  title = {{The impact of martian mesoscale winds on surface temperature and on the determination of thermal inertia}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2011,
  month = apr,
  volume = 212,
  pages = {504-519},
  abstract = {{Radiative control of surface temperature is a key characteristic of the
martian environment and its low-density atmosphere. Here we show through
meteorological modeling that surface temperature can be far from
radiative equilibrium over numerous sloping terrains on Mars, where
nighttime mesoscale katabatic winds impact the surface energy budget.
Katabatic circulations induce both adiabatic atmospheric heating and
enhancement of downward sensible heat flux, which then becomes
comparable to radiative flux and acts to warm the ground. Through this
mechanism, surface temperature can increase up to 20 K. One consequence
is that warm signatures of surface temperature over slopes, observed
through infrared spectrometry, cannot be systematically associated with
contrasts of intrinsic soil thermal inertia. Apparent thermal inertia
maps retrieved thus far possibly contain wind-induced structures.
Another consequence is that surface temperature observations close to
sloping terrains could allow the validation of model predictions for
martian katabatic winds, provided contrasts in intrinsic thermal inertia
can be ruled out. The thermal impact of winds is mostly discussed in
this paper in the particular cases of Olympus Mons/Lycus Sulci and Terra
Meridiani but is generally significant over any sloped terrains in low
thermal inertia areas. It is even general enough to apply under daytime
conditions, thereby providing a possible explanation for observed
afternoon surface cooling, and to ice-covered terrains, thereby
providing new insights on how winds could have shaped the present
surface of Mars.
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2011.02.001},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Goubanova}, K. and {Echevin}, V. and {Dewitte}, B. and {Codron}, F. and 
	{Takahashi}, K. and {Terray}, P. and {Vrac}, M.},
  title = {{Statistical downscaling of sea-surface wind over the Peru-Chile upwelling region: diagnosing the impact of climate change from the IPSL-CM4 model}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Statistical downscaling, Coastal wind, Upwelling, Peru, Chile, Climate change},
  year = 2011,
  month = apr,
  volume = 36,
  pages = {1365-1378},
  abstract = {{The key aspect of the ocean circulation off Peru-Chile is the
wind-driven upwelling of deep, cold, nutrient-rich waters that promote a
rich marine ecosystem. It has been suggested that global warming may be
associated with an intensification of upwelling-favorable winds.
However, the lack of high-resolution long-term observations has been a
limitation for a quantitative analysis of this process. In this study,
we use a statistical downscaling method to assess the regional impact of
climate change on the sea-surface wind over the Peru-Chile upwelling
region as simulated by the global coupled general circulation model
IPSL-CM4. Taking advantage of the high-resolution QuikSCAT wind product
and of the NCEP reanalysis data, a statistical model based on multiple
linear regressions is built for the daily mean meridional and zonal wind
at 10 m for the period 2000-2008. The large-scale 10 m wind components
and sea level pressure are used as regional circulation predictors. The
skill of the downscaling method is assessed by comparing with the
surface wind derived from the ERS satellite measurements, with in situ
wind observations collected by ICOADS and through cross-validation. It
is then applied to the outputs of the IPSL-CM4 model over stabilized
periods of the pre-industrial, 2 {\times} CO$_{2}$ and 4 {\times}
CO$_{2}$ IPCC climate scenarios. The results indicate that surface
along-shore winds off central Chile (off central Peru) experience a
significant intensification (weakening) during Austral winter (summer)
in warmer climates. This is associated with a general decrease in
intra-seasonal variability.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-010-0824-0},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Steen-Larsen}, H.~C. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Sjolte}, J. and 
	{Johnsen}, S.~J. and {Vinther}, B.~M. and {BréOn}, F.-M. and 
	{Clausen}, H.~B. and {Dahl-Jensen}, D. and {Falourd}, S. and 
	{Fettweis}, X. and {GalléE}, H. and {Jouzel}, J. and {Kageyama}, M. and 
	{Lerche}, H. and {Minster}, B. and {Picard}, G. and {Punge}, H.~J. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Salas}, D. and {Schwander}, J. and {Steffen}, K. and 
	{Sveinbj{\"o}Rnsd{\'o}ttir}, A.~E. and {Svensson}, A. and {White}, J.
  title = {{Understanding the climatic signal in the water stable isotope records from the NEEM shallow firn/ice cores in northwest Greenland}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Processes: Climate change and variability (1616, 1635, 3309, 4215, 4513), Cryosphere: Ice cores (4932), Atmospheric Processes: Boundary layer processes, Hydrology: Snow and ice (0736, 0738, 0776, 1827), Atmospheric Processes: Paleoclimatology (0473, 4900), NEEM, ice cores, Greenland},
  year = 2011,
  month = mar,
  volume = 116,
  eid = {D06108},
  pages = {6108},
  abstract = {{Samples of precipitation and atmospheric water vapor were collected
together with shallow firn/ice cores as part of the new deep drilling
project in northwest Greenland: the NEEM project. These samples were
analyzed for their isotope composition to understand the processes
affecting the climatic signal archived in the water stable isotope
records from the NEEM deep ice core. The dominant moisture source for
the snow deposited at the NEEM-site may be originating as far south as
35{\deg}N from the western part of the Atlantic Ocean. The surface
atmospheric water vapor appears in isotopic equilibrium with the snow
surface indicating a large water exchange between the atmosphere and
snowpack. The interannual variability of NEEM shallow firn/ice cores
stable isotope data covering the last {\tilde}40 years shows an
unexpectedly weak NAO signal. Regional to global atmospheric models
simulate a dominant summer precipitation in the NEEM area, suggesting
that the intermittency of modern winter precipitation is responsible for
the lack of a strong NAO imprint. The interannual variability of NEEM
isotope data however shows a strong correlation with interannual
variations of Baffin Bay sea ice cover, a relationship consistent with
air mass trajectories. NEEM deep ice core isotopic records may therefore
provide detailed information on past Baffin Bay sea ice extent. NEEM
stable water isotope content increasing trend points to a local warming
trend of {\tilde}3.0{\deg}C over the last 40 years.
  doi = {10.1029/2010JD014311},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Gastineau}, G. and {Li}, L. and {Le Treut}, H.},
  title = {{Some Atmospheric Processes Governing the Large-Scale Tropical Circulation in Idealized Aquaplanet Simulations}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2011,
  month = mar,
  volume = 68,
  pages = {553-575},
  doi = {10.1175/2010JAS3439.1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Mangold}, A. and {de Backer}, H. and {de Paepe}, B. and {Dewitte}, S. and 
	{Chiapello}, I. and {Derimian}, Y. and {Kacenelenbogen}, M. and 
	{LéOn}, J.-F. and {Huneeus}, N. and {Schulz}, M. and {Ceburnis}, D. and 
	{O'Dowd}, C. and {Flentje}, H. and {Kinne}, S. and {Benedetti}, A. and 
	{Morcrette}, J.-J. and {Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{Aerosol analysis and forecast in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Integrated Forecast System: 3. Evaluation by means of case studies}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere: composition and chemistry, aerosol modeling, atmospheric composition, model evaluation},
  year = 2011,
  month = feb,
  volume = 116,
  eid = {D03302},
  pages = {3302},
  abstract = {{A near real-time system for assimilation and forecasts of aerosols,
greenhouse and trace gases, extending the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting
System (IFS), has been developed in the framework of the Global and
regional Earth-system Monitoring using Satellite and in-situ data (GEMS)
project. The GEMS aerosol modeling system is novel as it is the first
aerosol model fully coupled to a numerical weather prediction model with
data assimilation. A reanalysis of the period 2003-2009 has been carried
out with the same system. During its development phase, the aerosol
system was first run for the time period January 2003 to December 2004
and included sea salt, desert dust, organic matter, black carbon, and
sulfate aerosols. In the analysis, Moderate Resolution Imaging
Spectroradiometer (MODIS) total aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm
over ocean and land (except over bright surfaces) was assimilated. This
work evaluates the performance of the aerosol system by means of case
studies. The case studies include (1) the summer heat wave in Europe in
August 2003, characterized by forest fire aerosol and conditions of high
temperatures and stagnation, favoring photochemistry and secondary
aerosol formation, (2) a large Saharan dust event in March 2004, and (3)
periods of high and low sea salt aerosol production. During the heat
wave period in 2003, the linear correlation coefficients between modeled
and observed AOD (550 nm) and between modeled and observed PM2.5 mass
concentrations are 0.82 and 0.71, respectively, for all investigated
sites together. The AOD is slightly and the PM2.5 mass concentration is
clearly overestimated by the aerosol model during this period. The
simulated sulfate mass concentration is significantly correlated with
observations but is distinctly overestimated. The horizontal and
vertical locations of the main features of the aerosol distribution
during the Saharan dust outbreak are generally well captured, as well as
the timing of the AOD peaks. The aerosol model simulates winter sea salt
AOD reasonably well, however, showing a general overestimation. Summer
sea salt events show a better agreement. Overall, the assimilation of
MODIS AOD data improves the subsequent aerosol predictions when compared
with observations, in particular concerning the correlation and AOD peak
values. The assimilation is less effective in correcting a positive
(PM2.5, sulfate mass concentration, Angstr{\"o}m exponent) or negative
(desert dust plume AOD) model bias.
  doi = {10.1029/2010JD014864},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Andrews}, T. and {Doutriaux-Boucher}, M. and {Boucher}, O. and 
	{Forster}, P.~M.},
  title = {{A regional and global analysis of carbon dioxide physiological forcing and its impact on climate}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Carbon dioxide physiological forcing, Climate response, Hydrological cycle, Surface energy balance, Fast responses},
  year = 2011,
  month = feb,
  volume = 36,
  pages = {783-792},
  abstract = {{An increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration has both a
radiative (greenhouse) effect and a physiological effect on climate. The
physiological effect forces climate as plant stomata do not open as wide
under enhanced CO$_{2}$ levels and this alters the surface energy
balance by reducing the evapotranspiration flux to the atmosphere, a
process referred to as `carbon dioxide physiological forcing'. Here the
climate impact of the carbon dioxide physiological forcing is isolated
using an ensemble of twelve 5-year experiments with the Met Office
Hadley Centre HadCM3LC fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model where
atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are instantaneously quadrupled and
thereafter held constant. Fast responses (within a few months) to carbon
dioxide physiological forcing are analyzed at a global and regional
scale. Results show a strong influence of the physiological forcing on
the land surface energy budget, hydrological cycle and near surface
climate. For example, global precipitation rate reduces by \~{}3\% with
significant decreases over most land-regions, mainly from reductions to
convective rainfall. This fast hydrological response is still evident
after 5 years of model integration. Decreased evapotranspiration over
land also leads to land surface warming and a drying of near surface
air, both of which lead to significant reductions in near surface
relative humidity (\~{}6\%) and cloud fraction (\~{}3\%). Patterns of fast
responses consistently show that results are largest in the Amazon and
central African forest, and to a lesser extent in the boreal and
temperate forest. Carbon dioxide physiological forcing could be a source
of uncertainty in many model predicted quantities, such as climate
sensitivity, transient climate response and the hydrological
sensitivity. These results highlight the importance of including
biological components of the Earth system in climate change studies.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-010-0742-1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Chen}, W. and {Jiang}, Z. and {Li}, L. and {Yiou}, P.},
  title = {{Simulation of regional climate change under the IPCC A2 scenario in southeast China}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate change, Climate extremes, Variable-grid model, Southeast China},
  year = 2011,
  month = feb,
  volume = 36,
  pages = {491-507},
  abstract = {{A variable-grid atmospheric general circulation model, LMDZ, with a
local zoom over southeast China is used to investigate regional climate
changes in terms of both means and extremes. Two time slices of 30 years
are chosen to represent, respectively, the end of the 20th century and
the middle of the 21st century. The lower-boundary conditions
(sea-surface temperature and sea-ice extension) are taken from the
outputs of three global coupled climate models: Institut Pierre-Simon
Laplace (IPSL), Centre National de Recherches
Météorologiques (CNRM) and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
Laboratory (GFDL). Results from a two-way nesting system between
LMDZ-global and LMDZ-regional are also presented. The evaluation of
simulated temperature and precipitation for the current climate shows
that LMDZ reproduces generally well the spatial distribution of mean
climate and extreme climate events in southeast China, but the model has
systematic cold biases in temperature and tends to overestimate the
extreme precipitation. The two-way nesting model can reduce the ''cold
bias'' to some extent compared to the one-way nesting model. Results with
greenhouse gas forcing from the SRES-A2 emission scenario show that
there is a significant increase for mean, daily-maximum and minimum
temperature in the entire region, associated with a decrease in the
number of frost days and an increase in the heat wave duration. The
annual frost days are projected to significantly decrease by 12-19 days
while the heat wave duration to increase by about 7 days. A warming
environment gives rise to changes in extreme precipitation events.
Except two simulations (LMDZ/GFDL and LMDZ/IPSL2) that project a
decrease in maximum 5-day precipitation (R5d) for winter, other
precipitation extremes are projected to increase over most of southeast
China in all seasons, and among the three global scenarios. The
domain-averaged values for annual simple daily intensity index (SDII),
R5d and fraction of total rainfall from extreme events (R95t) are
projected to increase by 6-7, 10-13 and 11-14\%, respectively, relative
to their present-day values. However, it is clear that more research
will be needed to assess the uncertainties on the projection in future
of climate extremes at local scale.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-010-0910-3},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Shi}, C. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Risi}, C. and {Eglin}, T. and 
	{Stievenard}, M. and {Pierre}, M. and {Wang}, X. and {Gao}, J. and 
	{Bréon}, F.-M. and {Zhang}, Q.-B. and {Daux}, V.},
  title = {{Sampling strategy and climatic implications of tree-ring stable isotopes on the southeast Tibetan Plateau}},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  year = 2011,
  month = jan,
  volume = 301,
  pages = {307-316},
  abstract = {{We explore the potential of tree-ring cellulose {$\delta$}$^{18}$O
and {$\delta$}$^{13}$C records for reconstructing climate variability
in the southeast Tibetan Plateau. Our sampling strategy was designed to
investigate intra and inter-tree variability, and the effects of the age
of tree on {$\delta$}$^{18}$O variation. We show that intra-tree
{$\delta$}$^{13}$C and {$\delta$}$^{18}$O variability is
negligible, and inter-tree coherence is sufficient to build robust
tree-ring {$\delta$}$^{18}$O or {$\delta$}$^{13}$C chronologies
based on only four trees. There is no evidence of an age effect
regarding {$\delta$}$^{18}$O, in contrast with tree-ring width. In
our warm and moist sampling site, young tree {$\delta$}$^{13}$C is
not clearly correlated with monthly mean meteorological data. Tree-ring
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O appears significantly anti-correlated with summer
precipitation amount, regional cloud cover, and relative humidity.
Simulations conducted with the ORCHIDEE land surface model confirm the
observed contribution of relative humidity to tree cellulose
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O, and explain the weak correlation of
{$\delta$}$^{13}$C with climate by the non-linear integration linked
with photosynthesis. Altogether, the tree-ring cellulose
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O is shown to be a promising proxy to reconstruct
regional summer moisture variability prior to the instrumental period.
  doi = {10.1016/j.epsl.2010.11.014},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Danuor}, S. and {Gaye}, A. and {Yacouba}, H. and {Mariko}, A. and 
	{Bouzou}, M.~I. and {Maiga}, M. and {da}, D. and {Ginoux}, K. and 
	{Parker}, D.~J. and {Polcher}, J. and {Laval}, K. and {Diallo}, D. and 
	{Bourles}, B.},
  title = {{Education in meteorology and climate sciences in West Africa}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Science Letters},
  year = 2011,
  month = jan,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {155-159},
  doi = {10.1002/asl.326},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Ruti}, P.~M. and {Williams}, J.~E. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Guichard}, F. and 
	{Boone}, A. and {van Velthoven}, P. and {Favot}, F. and {Musat}, I. and 
	{Rummukainen}, M. and {Dom{\'{\i}}nguez}, M. and {Gaertner}, M.~{\'A}. and 
	{Lafore}, J.~P. and {Losada}, T. and {Rodriguez de Fonseca}, M.~B. and 
	{Polcher}, J. and {Giorgi}, F. and {Xue}, Y. and {Bouarar}, I. and 
	{Law}, K. and {Josse}, B. and {Barret}, B. and {Yang}, X. and 
	{Mari}, C. and {Traore}, A.~K.},
  title = {{The West African climate system: a review of the AMMA model inter-comparison initiatives}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Science Letters},
  year = 2011,
  month = jan,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {116-122},
  doi = {10.1002/asl.305},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Taylor}, C.~M. and {Parker}, D.~J. and {Kalthoff}, N. and {Gaertner}, M.~A. and 
	{Philippon}, N. and {Bastin}, S. and {Harris}, P.~P. and {Boone}, A. and 
	{Guichard}, F. and {Agusti-Panareda}, A. and {Baldi}, M. and 
	{Cerlini}, P. and {Descroix}, L. and {Douville}, H. and {Flamant}, C. and 
	{Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Polcher}, J.},
  title = {{New perspectives on land-atmosphere feedbacks from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Science Letters},
  year = 2011,
  month = jan,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {38-44},
  doi = {10.1002/asl.336},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
Contact information

EMC3 group

Case 99
Tour 45-55, 3ème étage
4 Place Jussieu
75252 Paris Cedex 05
Tel: 33 + 1 44 27 27 99
      33 + 6 16 27 34 18 (Dr F. Cheruy)
Tel: 33 + 1 44 27 35 25 (Secretary)
Fax: 33 + 1 44 27 62 72
email: emc3 at

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